Cystolithiasis, also known as bladder stones, is a medical condition that is characterized by the crystallization of chemicals in the urine, which clumps together to form stones due to prolonged storage of urine in the bladder. Urine can be stored in the bladder for longer than usual time due to underlying bladder problems that block the flow of urine out, such as enlarged prostate gland or damaged nerves that causes the bladder not to empty completely during urination. In some occasion, long term dehydration may also cause the formation of bladder stones due to the presence of concentrated urine in the bladder. Cystolithiasis may cause symptoms, such as pain when urinating, blood in the urine, lower abdominal pain and difficulty in urinating. However, people with bladder stones may also present no symptoms at all. This condition is not life-threatening and the stones can be removed easily via a procedure, known as cystolitholapaxy, which involves inserting a small tube with a camera through the urethra into the bladder to view the stones, and using laser or ultrasound to break the stone into small pieces that are excreted during urination.